My research focuses on group formation, particularly in the context of new venture teams. To answer questions about what factors impact group formation, I employ a variety of methods including archival data, field research, qualitative methods, and experimental designs.


Jo, J. K., Harrison, D. A., & Gray, S. M. (2021). The ties that cope? Reshaping social connections in response to pandemic distress. Journal of Applied Psychology, 106(9), 1267–1282.

Gray, S. M., Knight, A.P., & Baer, M. (2020). On the emergence of collective ownership in new creative teams, Organization Science, 31(1), 141-164.

Gray, S. M., Bunderson, J. S., Boumgarden, P., & Bechara, J. P. (2019). Engineering interaction: Structural change, locus of identification, and the formation and maintenance of cross-unit ties, Personnel Psychology, 72, 599-622.

Gray, S.M., Knight, A.P., Baer, M. 2020. What kind of startup founder are you? Harvard Business Review Digital.

Other Work

Gray, S. M., Bunderson, J. S., Van der Vegt, G., Rink, F., & Gedik, Y. “Diversity and Hierarchy in Teams.” Under 3rd review at Academy of Management Journal.

Gray, S. M. Complement or different: Entrepreneur and potential joiners’ asymmetric views of functional knowledge dissimilarity during new venture team formation.

Gray, S. M., Boumgarden, P., Ranganathan, R., & Huang, L. Sizing up the hierarchy: Status disparity, venture risk, and newcomer additions in multiparty syndicates.

Gray, S. M., Milovac, M. Playing the Part: Why investors penalize women founders for occupying certain C-suite roles but not others.

Gray, S. M., Sackett, E, & Howell, T. Overcoming the familiarity trap in new venture team formation.

Janardhanan, N., Zhang, Yuxin, & Gray, S. M. Loyal to Whom? Founding team entrepreneurial and professional identification, startup identity conflict, and ambidexterity.

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